The literature on dynamic factor demand models has, until recently, largely overlooked the issue of capital utilization. In this paper we allow for variations in the rate of capital utilization within the context of a dynamic factor demand model by adopting a modeling framework within which the firm combines its beginning-of-period stocks with other inputs to produce its outputs as well as its end-of-period stocks. We also define measures of productivity and capacity utilization for the adopted framework.
Endogenous Capital Utilization and Productivity Measurement in Dynamic Factor Demand Models: Theory and an Application to the U.S. Electrical Machinery IndustryM. Ishaq Nadiri and Ingmar Prucha ,
2( 71 )
Journal of Econometrics