Pharmaceutical products can be of poor quality either because they contain zero correct active ingredient (referred to as “falsified”) or because they contain a non-zero but incorrect amount of the right active ingredient (referred to as “substandard”).
Falsified or Substandard? Assessing Price and Non-Price Signals of Drug QualityRoger Bate, Gingner Jin and Aparna Mathur ,
4( 24 )
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy