One of the most widely used tests for spatial dependence is Moran’s (1950) I test. The power of the test will depend on the extent to which the spatial-weights matrix employed in computing the Moran I test statistic properly specifies existing interaction links between spatial units. Empirical researchers are often unsure about the use of a particular spatial-weights matrix. In light of this Prucha (2011) introduced the I2 (q) test statistic.
On the I2(q) Test Statistic for Spatial Dependence: Finite Sample Standardization and PropertiesDavid M. Drukker and Ingmar Prucha ,
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Spatial Economic Analysis